This app helps you think through custom-tailoring flat structures. Choose along which domain – task division, task allocation, rewards distribution, information exchange, and exception management – you would like to allow for teams-based self-organization, a boss-led teams structure, or not (i.e. retain a hierarchical structure). The app will provide you with examples for the configuration you have chosen if they exist (green light and examples); if they do not, the app will help you assess whether the configuration is possible theoretically (orange light) or not (red light) and explain why.

Team Based BOSS-LEAD
Task Division (TD)
Task Allocation (TA)
Reward Distribution (RD)
Information Exchange (IE)
Exception Management (EM)



Wikipedia, Linux
Wikipedia: fits the bill. TD is decentralized in the sense that no specific articles are being solicited centrally. Members decide on the topics they would like to articles on. RD is decentralized in the sense that members decide for themselves why they want to join and contribute, and for how long they are willing to participate. In other words, motivation and incentives are determined individually and may therefore differ. IE and EM are decentralized, where EM is helped by a sophistated system of lateral authority by administrators if needed.
Wikipedia: wikimediaDE. (2017, January 13). How do people work on Wikipedia? YouTube. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from ; Philipose, R. (2020, August 9). Explained: Why is Wikipedia seeking donations from its users? The Indian Express. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from ; Kock, N., Jung, Y., & Syn, T. (2016). Wikipedia and e-Collaboration Research: Opportunities and Challenges. International Journal of e-Collaboration (IJeC), 12(2), 1-8. ; Constantino, J. (2016, February 26). Infomaven 2: How Wikipedia Works. YouTube. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from; Puranam, P., Alexy, O., & Reitzig, M. (2014). What’s “New” About New Forms of Organizing? Academy of Management Review, 39(2), 162–180. ; Linux: Casadesus-Masanell, Ramon, and Jordan Mitchell. "Linux vs. Windows." Harvard Business School Case 707-465, October 2006. (Revised February 2010.) Gardiner, B. (2015, September 22). What Is Linux? | The Linux Gamer. YouTube. Retrieved November 17, 2021, from